Routine Immunization

Routine Immunization In India

Delivering effective and safe vaccines through an efficient delivery system is one of the most cost effective public health interventions. Immunization programs aim to reduce mortality and morbidity due to Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPDs).

Following the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1975 through effective vaccination programs and strengthened surveillance, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was launched in India in 1978 to control other VPDs. Initially, six diseases were selected: Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Poliomyelitis, Typhoid and childhood tuberculosis. The aim was to cover 80% of all infants. Subsequently, the program was universalized and renamed as Universal Immunization Program (UIP) in 1985. Measles vaccine was included in the program and typhoid vaccine was discontinued. The UIP was introduced in a phased manner from 1985 to cover all districts in the country by 1990, targeting all infants with the primary immunization schedule and all pregnant women with tetanus-toxoid Immunization.

The UIP envisages achieving and sustaining universal immunization coverage in infants with three doses of DPT and OPV and one dose each of measles vaccine and BCG, and, in pregnant women, with two primary doses or one booster dose of TT. The UIP also requires a reliable cold chain system for storing and transporting vaccines, and attaining self-sufficiency in the production of all required vaccines.

In 1992, the UIP became a part of the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program (CSSM), and in 1997, it became an important component of the Reproductive and Child Health Program (RCH). The Cold-chain system was strengthened and training program was launched extensively throughout the country. Intensified polio eradication activities were started in 1995-96 under the Polio Eradication program, beginning with National Immunization Days (NIDs) and active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). The Polio Eradication Program was set up with the assistance of the National Polio Surveillance Project.

Milestones in the Immunization Program in India

1978 Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) introduced after small pox eradication
BCG, DPT, OPV, Typhoid
Limited to mainly urban areas
1985 Universal Immunization Program (UIP) introduced
Expanded to entire country
Measles added
Close monitoring of 1 yr age group
1986 Technology Mission
1990 Vitamin–A supplementation
1992 Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program
1995 Polio National Immunization Days
1997 Reproductive and Child Health Program (RCH-I)
2005-2012 RCH-II and the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)
2012-2017 Extension of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)
2012-13 Introduction of Pentavalent 1, 2, 3 dose replacing DPT-1, 2 , 3 & Hepatitis- 1, 2, 3
2013-14 Introduction of Measles 2nd Dose (all over State)

Routine Immunization Gujarat

Immunization is one of the most cost effective public health interventions as vaccines avert both morbidity and mortality. RI program has five major components including.

  • Vaccination
  • Monitoring of vaccination coverage
  • Surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases
  • Reporting of adverse event following immunization and
  • Training

Immunization program of Gujarat has undergone significant changes in recent years which includes new policy environment (National Rural Health Mission), New Vaccine (e.g. Second measles dose, Introduction of Hepatitis B Vaccine in entire State), Measles SIA in all districts & corporations. Gujarat State has already introduced Pentavalent-Vaccine by January 2013, a new technique to solve old problems (e.g. Injection safety), new technologies for Vaccine delivery (DLIMS) and Cold Chain, Cold Chain Strengthening (NCCMIS), Skill building for vaccination, AEFI (Adverse Events following Immunization), Cold Chain maintenance and Supervision and Monitoring and effective child tracking with ICT based e- Mamta.

Govt. of India has declared 2012-13 as the Year of Intensification of Routine Immunization.

Immunization Coverage in Gujarat

Gujarat has improved on the various indicators of Reproductive and Child Health but there are still areas for improvement in Immunization Program.

Immunization % Coverage (MIS Reporting)
Mis Reporting
Left out Dropout Rate (As per CES 2009)
Leftout Dropout Rate
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